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2016-01-29 05:18:45|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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On Universal Force Field

wangshengli

Abstract:

Aiming at the questions of “abnormal angular momentum”, “galactic rotation curves” and “dark matter”, this paper presents that motion mass creates a force field. This new thought is considered as the complement to Newton’s law of gravitation. This paper points out that the rotation mass can be abstracted as mass circulation. To compare mass circulation to electric circulation, by use of mass circulation intensity and Maxwell equation, we derive that mass circulation will create a kind of new field. The author believes that this kind of new field decides that motion and evolution of the celestial bodies together with the gravitational field. Thus if such a force field were to exist, it would explain several puzzles in celestial mechanics.

Key Words: mass flux, mass circulation, rotation force field

I. Introduction

The celestial mechanism is based upon Newton’s law of gravitation. With the progress in observation methods and the development of modern theories, we now have a good understanding in celestial bodies, while many unexplained anomalies are born, such as “abnormal angular momentum”, “gravitational constant decrease”, “missing mass and dark matter” and “anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11”, etc. There have been a number of proposals to explain them. In this paper, it would use an analogy method to compare rotation mass flux to electric circulation. According to Maxwell equation, the author puts out that the mass circulation cause force field (rotation force field) so that we can get some positive result under the condition of non-relativity and without the help of dark matter hypothesis. This paper emphasizes on deriving the field and force, analyzing their characters and explaining some problems of celestial physics in theory. The existence of rotation force field has yet to be proved in experiment and theory.

II. Basic concept of universal mechanism

Newton’s law of gravitation is derived from J. Kepler’s third law, while Kepler’s law is empirical and hasn’t got any physical explanation. The conservation law of angular momentum determines the fixed final angular momentum of the galaxy. However, the force origin of Newton’s law of gravitation is a unit of points. It can’t explain the phenomenon of gravitational constant change, abnormal angular momentum of the solar system, dark matter and unexpected acceleration of the spaceship.

The observations indicate that in a stable system, a slave body can’t revolve a non-rotational center celestial body (main body); the revolution period of the slave body is always larger than the rotation period of the main body; the celestial body always rotates which maintain a stable orbit. Thus, the motion of celestial bodies is related to its mass or rotation. The motion or rotation mass would cause a new force field or rotation force field.

III. Universal Force Field

3.1 Field

Take the solar system for example. Consider the sun as a regular geosphere, and idealized model, density ρ and spherical symmetry. Where the solar radius is R and rotation angular velocity is ω (ω is constant). 0<ω<ωmax, ωmax =c/rmax, where c is the speed of light, rmax is the largest radius of the moving body in the rotational plane. The physical meaning of ωmax is that the linear velocity of any point in rotating body is smaller than speed of light (according to Einstein’s speed of light theory)


P



dl



q



z



x



y



r



Re



Fig. 1


The sun’s mass . It can be abstracted as a concentric disc (Fig. 1). The mass within the plane distribute along with the radius. If  ρ is not affected by R, there is the maximum value in the distance of  to the center. Thus, the sun’s rotation mass can be abstracted as mass circulation (radius is Re). The mass circulation can create rotation force field.

According to Maxwell equation, similar to the electric circulation, the equation of the mass circulation creates rotation force field can be written.

……………………………………………………. ( 1)

Where J0 is undetermined constant; I is mass circulation density, I=M/T; T is the rotation period of the sun, angular momentum ω=2p/T.

Because of the axial symmetry of the mass circulation, In the equation of ,only j has the component .  is only related to (R,q) rather than j. Thus, we choose the point P in the plane and Calculate , that is on point P.

Therefore, for the component y in equation (1), since, ,

 ,

So,  …….…………(2)

When  ……… …………………………………….(3)

We expand the term in Equation (2) for , thus Equation (2) can be written:

…………………………………………………………………………………..(4)

The applicable condition of Equation (4) is Equation (3), including two situations:

(1)    (far field)

(2)   or (paraxial field)

From the rotation angle in Equation(4) , we have the rotation force field :

Component of rotation force field:

 …………………..(5)

Here, R is the radius of the revolution orbit so that R is larger than the sun’s radius. Therefore, , , Given , thus:

  ………………………………………….(6)

Modulus of (field strength):

……………… (7)

The variations of field strengthω along with θ are shown in Figure 2


w0



θ



0



0.2



0.4



0.6



0.8



1



1.2



1.4



1.6



1.8



2



0



10



20



30



40



50



60



70



80



90


 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 2

Relation between rotation force field strengthωandθ

Equation (6) (7) indicate:

1)      If the sun doesn’t rotate (ω=0), the rotation force field doesn’t exist, so that the gravitational force dominates the evolution of the solar system.

2)      When the planet moves in the ecliptic plane, θ=90o, the field strength is extreme minimum value wo;

3)      When the planet moves perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, θ=0o, the field strength is extreme maximum value 2 wo.

3.2 Force

Suppose the mass of the planet is m, motion velocity is . Besides the gravitational force, the planet is also affected by rotation force in the rotation force field:

  …………………………………………………(8)

The rotation force field, together with the gravitational field, composes the universal force field, which decides the motion and evolution of the celestial bodies.

The above derivation could not be confined in the solar system. The evolution of the whole universal system is ruled by universal force.

IV. Characteristic of universal force field

Comparison of the characteristics of Newton’s gravitational force field and rotation force field:

S.N.

Name and specific features

Newton’s gravitational force field

Rotation force field

1

Field property

Conservative field

Non-conservative field

2

Field shape

Sphere

Plate-like

3

Field line

Non-close

Close

4

Orientation of force

Geometric center

Non-geometric center(radius is Re)

5

Relation with rotation

Unrelated

Related, and 0<ω<ωmax

6

Distribution of angular momentum within the same system

Unchanged

Move directed towards the revolution of the planet (θ=90o)

7

Revolution linear velocity of their object

νNewton=[GM(R)/R]?

νNewton +at (acceleration a>0)

V. Discussion

5.1 Equation (8) indicates that motion mass is affected by the non-zero force in the rotation force field, while the motionless mass isn’t.

5.2 Equation (8) also indicates that when θ=90o, the planet moves in the ecliptic plane, and BR=0, FR=0, the planet in the direction of R-axis are not affected by the rotation force field. But Fθ≠0 and it is maximum, it provides partial centripetal force for the revolution of planets (characteristic 6); when θ=0o, the planetary orbit is perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, F is maximum, the planetary orbit moves directed towards the ecliptic plane; when 0o <θ<90o, FR includes a force to move towards the ecliptic plane for planetary orbit moving and the other force of centrifugal for planetary revolution. Fθ includes a force to move towards the ecliptic plane for planetary orbit moving and the other force of centripetal for planetary revolution.

5.3 According to the interpretation of 5.2, when there is a force for planet to move directed towards the ecliptic plane, the angular momentum between the planetary orbit and the rotation axis of the sum increases gradually. When the planet (revolution orbit) moves in the θ=0o plane, the angular momentum is not zero. So the plane is not zero. According to the conservation law of angular momentum, the rotation angular momentum of fixed star is bound to decrease during its evolution so that “the angular momentum of solar system is abnormal”.

5.4 As is well known, the galactic rotation curves are at a far distance from the center. The rotation rate is larger than the expectation of Newton’s gravity, thus providing explanations for the existence of dark matter. In fact, when θ=90o, Equation (8) has indicated that Fθ provides partial centripetal force for planetary revolution. Since mass circulation would be provided by total mass {Mi} within R, with the increase of R, the centripetal force in point R is approximate

……….(9)

Linear velocity v is

…………………………(10)

In Equation (10), the first term is larger than zero, i increasing along with R. The whole term is possible to go up with R’s increase. It shows that “dark matter” is fewer than expectation, even it doesn’t exist.

5.5 It’s reported that Pioneer 10 and 11 encountered an anomalous acceleration by (8.74±1.33)×10-8 (cm/s2)directed towards the Sun. Suppose the orbits of Pioneer 10 and 11 approximate to the ecliptic plane,i.e. the corresponding   in equation (8), and also we sample the max, thus the force directs towards the sun, valuing . Suppose the force is totally used to acceleration, by use of the solar system constant, we can get J=2.176×10-22 (m/kg) in Equation (6)-(8). But in fact, the spacecrafts don’t move around the sun with circular motion, and also the orbits are irregular(for example, they accelerate when meeting the planets, or the thruster or propeller work, etc.). Thus, the force for spacecraft to accelerate directed towards the sun is only a partial force affected by rotation force. The value of “J” is the lower limit as well.

5.6 In Equation (9), along with the transform of the angular momentum, when the flow of mass circulation declines (rotation angular velocity ω declines), the centripetal force F declines. Thus, by use of Newton’s gravity, it shows that gravitation constant G declines. Some people tried to modify the denominate in Newton’s gravity equation, e.g. A. Hall[x], S. Newcomb[y] and E. W. Brown[z], etc., and got the following figures respectively, n=2+1.67×10-7, n=2+1.574×10-7, and n=2+4×10-8. Thus, we use the solar system constant to define the J value to be 4.49×10-14, 2.307×10-14 and 9.16×10-21 respectively. These results align with the expected limit mentioned above in 5.5

VI. Conclusion

This paper derives the equation of mass circulation creates rotation force field by use of comparing motion mass to electric circulation and using Maxwell equation. It discusses the characteristic of rotation force field. The author believes that the rotation force field, together with the gravitational field, composes the universal force field, which decides the motion and evolution of the celestial bodies. The existence of rotation force field explains the problems of abnormal angular momentum, galactic/flat rotation curves, and anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts to some extent. This paper confines the prescribed minimum value of the constant J in rotation force field according to Pioneer 10 and 11 anomalous acceleration and the decline data of gravity constant G.

 

 

The References

1. Zongwei, Li, Xinghua Xiao, “The Astrophysics”,The Higher Education Press, Beijing,2001

2. J.D. Anderson, P.A. Laing, E.L. Lan, A.S. Liu, M. M. Nieto, and S.G. Turyshev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81. 2858, 1998

3. John D. Anderson, Philip A. Laing, Eunice L. Lan, Anthony S. Liu, Michael Martin Nieto and Slava G. Turyshev. Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11, Phys. Rew. D, 65, 082004-1~082004-50

4. Fischbach, E., Sudarsky, D., Szafer, A., Talmadge, C., Aronson, S.H. 1986, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56.3

5. E. Schmutzer, Astron. Nachr. 322(2001)2, 93—102

6. Matthew R. Edwards (ed.): Pushing Gravity: New perspectives on LeSage’s theory of gravitation, Apeiron (C.Roy Keys Inc.), Montreal, 2002

7. Qiren Zhang,“The Classical Field Theory”, The Science Press, Beijing, 2003

8. The Encyclopedia of China—Astronomy,The Encyclopedia Press of China, December, 1980.

 

 

 

Core Hint

The theoretical basis of the universal theory (i.e. mass and energy) is intended to illuminate that the spinning of object shall possess a new physical feature and next arouse a new force field. The gravitational feature of object remains unchangeable in the process of spinning, which means that the object does not present a single gravitational force field but a universal force field while spinning. Suppose the hypothesis of this argumentation comes true, the results derived from reliable deduction are:

1. The mass and energy sum of subsidiary object is as small as, if not larger than that of main subject.

2. The orbit of objects (such as planets) or object sets(such as the aureoles) are noncircular curves.

3. The revolution period of any object is definitely longer than the rotation period of main subject.

4. The conversion equation between spinning energy and mass follows this formula:  (c is velocity of light)

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